Resources - Tamarack Habilitation Technologies, Inc.


Journal articles, whitepapers, and research about friction, shear, and Tamarack products.

Journal Articles

Technical Presentations & Whitepapers

Additional Recommended Reading on Pressure, Friction & Shear in Human Environments and Laboratory Research

  • Akins, J. S., Karg, P. E., & Brienza, D. M. (2011). Interface shear and pressure characteristics of wheelchair seat cushions. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 48(3), 225-234.
  • Antokal St., D. Brienza, et al Friction Induced Skin Injuries – Are they Pressure Ulcers? National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; White Paper, NPUAP 11/2012
  • Armstrong DG, Peters EJ, Athanasiou KA, Lavery LA: Is there a critical level of plantar foot pressure to identify patients at risk for neuropathic foot ulceration? J Foot Ankle Surg 37(4):303-7, 1998
  • Bader, DL: The recovery characteristics of soft tissues following repeated loading. JRRD Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, Pages 141-150.
  • Benett, L, et al, Shear versus pressure as causative factors in skin blood flow occlusion Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1979; 60:309-314
  • Bostan, L.E. & Z.A Taylor et al, A comparison of friction behavior for ex vivo human tissue engineered and synthetic skin Tribology International Vol 103 Nov. 2016, 487-495 Elsevier
  • Carlson, J.M. The Mechanics of Soft Tissue Damage The Academy Today 7.1 (Feb. 2011): A-5-7.
  • Carlson, J.M. The Friction Factor OrthoKinetic Review 1.7 (Nov.-Dec. 2001): 1-3.
  • Carlson, J.M. Functional Limitations from Pain Caused by Repetitive Loading on the Skin: A Review and Discussion for Practitioners, with New Data for Limiting Friction Loads. JPO 18(4):93-103 Oct. 2006
  • Carlson, J.M. et al, Using ShearBan to offload Shear on the Diabetic Foot, White Paper May 10, 2012.
  • Cavanagh, PA, Bus SA. Off-loading the diabetic foot for ulcer prevention and healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5):360-8, 2010.
  • Ceelen, KK, Stekelenburg A, Loerakker S, et al. Compression induced damage and internal tissue strains are related., J Biomech 2008: 3399-3404
  • Chen, WP, Ju CW, Tang FT, Effects of total contact insoles on the plantar stress redistribution; a finite element analysis. Clin Biomech 18(6): 17-24, 2003
  • Cottenden, AM, Wong WK, Cottenden DJ and Farbrot A. “Development and validation of a new method for measuring friction between skin and nonwoven materials”. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 2008;222(5):791-803.
  • Derler, S., L-C Gerhardt et al Friction of human skin against smooth and rough glass as a function of the contact pressure Tribology International 42 (2009)1565-1574 Elsevier
  • Dindale, SM. Decubitus Ulcers: Role of pressure and friction in causation. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1974; 55: 147-152.
  • Edsberg, L.E. et al Mechanical characteristics of human skin subjected to static versus cyclic normal pressures JRRD Vol 36 No. 2 April 1999.
  • Gefen, A. Deep Tissue Injury: What do Cells in the Buttocks Sense During Sitting? Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Tel Aviv University, 02/2012
  • Gefen, A. Bioenginering Research of Chronic Wounds, A Multidisciplinary Study Approach; Springer Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg, 2009, ISBN 978-3-642-00534-3.
  • Goossens, RHM, Snijders CJ, Holscher TG, Heerens WC, Holman AE. Shear stress measured on beds and wheelchairs. Scand J Rehab Med 1997; 29: 131-136.
  • Hanna, T., and J. Martin Carlson. Freedom of Friction, OrthoKinetic Review. 4.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2004): 34-35. Hanson, D., Langemo, D. K., Anderson, J., Thompson, P., & Hunter, S. (2010). Friction and shear considerations in pressure injury development. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 23(1), 21-24.
  • Kaphingst W. & M. Payette, Considerations on Friction & Shear in Human Soft Tissue, Mobility Management, Nov 17 2015,
  • Kobara, K., Daisuke, F., Osaka, H., Ito, T., Yoshimura, Y., & Ishida, H. (2013). Mechanism of fluctuation in shear force applied to buttocks during reclining of back support on wheelchair. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 8(3), 220-224.
  • Lahman NA, Kottner J, Relation between pressure, friction and pressure ulcer categories: a secondary data analysis of hospital patients using CHAID methods. Int J Nurs Stud 2011; 48: 1487-1494.
  • Landsman, Is Shear the new Plantar Pressure, 05/2012 16:14 Podiatry Today.
  • Le, KM. Madsen BL, Barth PW, et al. An in-depth look at pressure sores using monolithic silicon pressure sensors. Plastic Reconstr Surg. 74:745-756, 1984
  • Lewis, DW, Nourse BM: A device designed to approximate shear forces on human skin (a preliminary study). Bull Prosthet Res. 1978 Fall:36-46.
  • Linder-Ganz E, Engelberg A, Scheinowitz M, et al. Pressure-time cell death threshold for albino rat skeletal muscles as related to pressure sore biomechanics. J Biomech 2006; 39: 2725-2732.
  • Linder-Ganz, E, Gefen A, The effects of pressure and shear on capillary closure in the microstructure of skeletal muscles. Ann Biomed Eng. 2007 Dec; 35(12):2095-107
  • Lobman, R, Kasten G, Kasten U, Lehnert H, Association of increased plantar pressures with peripheral sensorimotor and peripheral autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes, Nutr Metab 15(3): 165-8, June 2002.
  • Maluf, KS, Morley RE Jun,Richter EJ, Klaesner JW, Mueller MJ, Monitoring in-shoe plantar pressures, temperature and humidity, reliability and validity of measures from a portable device. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82(8): 1119-27, 2001.
  • Mueller MJ, Lott DJ. Hastings MK, Commean PK, Smith KE, Pilgrim TK, Efficacy and mechanism of orthotic devices to unload metatarsal heads in people with diabetes and a history of plantar ulcers. Phys Ther 86(6): 833-42, 2006.
  • Naylor PFD, Experimental friction blisters. Br Dermatol 1955; 67:327-342
  • Naylor PFD, The skin surface and friction Br Dermatol 1955; 67:239-248
  • OhuraT, Takahashi M, Ohura N,Jr.: Influence of External Force (Pressure and Shear Force) on Superficial Layer and Subcutis of Porcine Skin and Effects of Dressing Materials. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2007.
  • Ohura N, Ichioka S, Nakatsuka T, Shibita M.: Evaluating dressing materials for the prevention of shear force in the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Wound Care 14(9):401-4, 2005.
  • Scherer P.The Case for Friction Management, Biomechanics & Orthotics, Podiatry Management 09-2012, 111-116.
  • Smith G., A. Ingram, Clinical and cost effectiveness evaluation of low friction and shear garments Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 19, No 12, Dec. 2010.
  • Sivamani R.K., GooodmanJ., Gitis N.V., Maibach H.I. : Friction coefficient of skin in real-time. Skin Research and Technology, 2003, 9, 235-239.
  • Stekelenburg A. Strikers GJ, Panusel H, et al, Role of ischemia and deformation in the onset of compression-induced deep tissue injury: MRI based studies in a rat model, J. Appl. Physiol. 2007 May; 102(5):2002-11.
  • Stekelenburg A. et al, Compression-induced damage and internal tissue strains are related, J. Biomech 2008 Dec 5;41(16):3399-404. Physiol. 2007 May; 102(5):2002-11.
  • Sulzberger MB et al; Studies on blisters produced by friction. J Invest Dermatol 1966; 47:456-465.
  • Tasron D.N., Thurston T.J., Carré M.J., Frictional behavior of running sock textiles against plantar skin, 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015. 1877-7058 © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.; online
  • Tsung BYS, Zhang M, Mak AFT, Wong MW, Effectiveness on insoles on plantar pressure redistribution. J Rehabil Res Dev 42(6A): 767-74, 2004
  • Veijgen N.K. et al, Relating Friction on the Human Skin to the Hydration and Temperature of the Skin, Springer Sciences & Business Media New York, 11/2012
  • Veves A, Murray HJ, Young MJ, and Boulton AJM. The risk of foot ulceration in Diabetic patients with high foot pressure: a prospective study. Diabetologia 35(7):660-3, 1992.
  • Zhang M. , Mak A.F.T.: In vivo friction properties of human skin. P&O Int 1999, 23, 135-141

Clinical Posters

J. Martin Carlson’s Technical Articles

In 1990, J. Martin “Marty” Carlson founded Tamarack Habilitation Technologies, Inc. to provide custom seating support orthoses. Visit Marty Carlson’s website to browse his published articles related to flexure joint technology, friction management, sitting support orthosis design, spinal orthotic design biomechanics, lower limb orthotic design and biomechanics, mobility and personal interviews featured in industry publications.

Veterinary Orthotics & Prosthetics

After recognizing that our Tamarack Flexure Joints were being used in the fabrication of animal orthotic & prosthetic devices, we developed launched the Veterinary Orthotics & Prosthetics Directory as a resource for pet owners and veterinary medicine staff to learn more about, and connect with, veterinary orthotic & prosthetic facilities, worldwide.

Awards, Certifications & Memberships

  • 2016 Leaders in Healthcare Awards Finalist, Minnesota Business Magazine
  • 2015 Minnesota Manufacturing Award – New Product: Textiles Category Winner
  • 2013 da Vinci Awards Finalist
  • 2012 LifeScience Alley New Technology Showcase Winner
  • National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Corporate Advisory Council Member
  • ISO 13485: 2016 Quality Management System
  • Member of the American Orthotic & Prosthetic Association
  • Member of the American Academy of Orthotics & Prosthetics